India has a lot to gain from the widespread adoption of Electric Mobility (e-mobility). Under the Make in India initiative, the manufacturing of e-vehicles and their associated components is expected to increase the share of manufacturing in India’s GDP.
e-mobility will contribute to balancing energy demand, storage and environmental sustainability. Operating on electric motors powered by batteries, EVs can help diversify the energy required to move goods and people. Additionally, e-mobility comes with almost zero emissions of air pollutants.
Keeping in mind the commitments made by the Government of India during the Paris Climate Conference in 2015 to reduce emissions by 33 to 35 percent by 2030, according to Bureau of Energy Efficiency. It is mandatory to introduce alternative means in the transport sector.
India’s automotive industry is the largest in the world and is expected to become the third largest by 2030. To cater to the country’s vast domestic demand of automobiles, it will be imperative to opt for e-mobility rather than the conventional modes of fuel-intensive mobility.
On the economic front, large-scale adoption of electric vehicles (EV) is projected to help save $60 billion on oil imports by 2030. Currently, imports fulfil 82% of India’s oil demand. The price of electricity as fuel could fall as low as Rs. 1.2/km, helping an EV owner save up to Rs. 20,000 for every 5,000km traversed. Moreover, electrification will help reduce vehicular emissions, a key contributor to air pollution, which causes an average 3% GDP loss yearly.
By opting for EVs, India will be benefitted in many ways, like conserving renewable energy and resources. According to a study conducted by CEEW Centre for Energy Finance (CEEW-CEF), the market for EVs in India will be US$206 billion by 2030 if India continues to meet the 2030 target. Another report by the India Energy Storage Alliance (IESA) indicates that the market for EVs in India will grow at a CAGR of 36 per cent by 2026. The EV battery market is also projected to grow at a CAGR of 30 per cent.
The comprehensive EV charging solutions can fulfil the needs for various applications such as parking, workplace, fleet, residential buildings, etc. However, let’s first discuss the basics of EV chargers and their broader classifications based on Connection and Vehicle Technologies.
What is an EV Charger?
An electric vehicle (EV) charger is a piece of equipment that supplies electrical power for charging plug-in electric vehicles (including cars, trucks, buses, and plug-in hybrids). These chargers come in two forms:
AC charging is a simple and compact way of charging the electric vehicle and can be easily installed at home. AC Chargers are normally used in slow charging applications and are best suitable for multiple installations like shopping plazas and workplaces. An AC charger provides power to the onboard charger of the vehicle, converting that AC power to DC to charge the battery. These chargers are slow and thus take 6~8 hours to charge a vehicle completely.
DC chargers are high-capacity chargers used for fast-charging the vehicle. DC chargers directly deliver DC power to the battery, bypassing all of the limitations of low capacity conversion of the onboard chargers, thus taking less time to charge the electric vehicles. They charge the vehicles in less than one hour, making it suitable for public EV charging stations inside cities and highways and for fleet operators.
Different EV Chargers based on the type of EVs
Electric vehicles have different types of chargers for multiple types of electric vehicles. Apart from the AC & DC charging, electric vehicle chargers can be further classified based on the charging guns. There are three main types of EV charger:
Type 2 Charger
The Type 2 Charger provides slow chargers and is compatible with both AC charging systems. These types of chargers work with single-phase or three-phase input power systems, depending on the charger rating. The input power can manage between 3.3 kW to 43 kW with a 400-volt AC supply. Such chargers are usually ideal to be installed at home, compatible with vehicles with CCS-2 plugs. It is among the prominent standards in the Indian market.
CCS or Combined Charging System
For DC charging, one of the prominent standards in the four-wheelers and bus segment for high-capacity charging is CCS. A combined charging system plug or CCS type plug (often called a CCS Type 2) is common in current-age electric vehicles. CCS-based chargers are fast chargers and are prominently used for a public charging station. CCS can deliver power up to 350kW and with a wide operating voltage of 200-1000VDC, which is the highest in the industry of EV Charging.
With global acceptance and presence in over 70+ countries worldwide, this is one of the first types of fast-charging systems developed. It can handle DC fast-charging of up to 62.5 kW. But the new electric vehicles are now switching to CCS due to its versatility.
The Indian government had recommended the GB/T type charger for DC Charging under its Bharat DC 001 standard. These chargers are installed by Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a government body, and are capable of DC fast-charging with an output of 10-15 kW for low-power EVs.
In India, operating an EV is cheaper than running a petrol or diesel car, which makes it more affordable. By using the energy-efficient EV charging solutions, individuals can charge their cars from the comfort of their homes. They can save time by not queuing up at the charging stations, using AC and DC chargers.
Moreover, installing multiple chargers (with different charging gun type) at a charge point, can help an individual use any nearby charging point. With easy access to EVs and charging solutions, people will be more inclined toward investing in EV purchasing, which will eventually increase the usage of electric vehicles in India.
Disclaimer: This article has been authored by Amit Gupta, Business Head, Energy Infrastructure Solution, Delta Electronics. Views and opinions expressed in this articles are solely those of the original author and do not represent any of The Times of Group or its employees.